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Tuesday, July 1, 2008

Medical paper 2007 : Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation
Shimizu M, Cashman JR, Yamazaki H

The results of this study conducted by the respected FMO3 geneticist expert Dr. Cashman of HRBI, and Drs. Shimizu and Yamazaki in 2007 suggest that sex hormones play a role in reducing FMO3 function on days around menstruation. "Menses can be a factor causing transient trimethylaminuria even in healthy women harboring active enzymes. The present information could be useful in relieving the symptoms for transient and/or mild trimethylaminuria for affected females during menstruation."

full article: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=17257434

Points of note :

"Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3).

...For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing <> 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%.

...Conclusion
Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function.

...The causal factor of excessive free trimethylamine is reduced enzyme capacity, or maybe substrate overload. The decreased enzyme capacity to form non-odorous trimethylamine N-oxide could be a result by an inherited deficiency (primary genetic trimethylaminuria) and/or by hormonal modulation or liver damage (transient trimethylaminuria) [2,3]. For trimethylaminuria, at least 40 genetic polymorphisms of the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) gene have been reported [4,5]. For transient trimethylaminuria, a change of metabolic capacity in one individual around the time of menstruation has been reported [6]. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active FMO3.

...Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. This would further suggest that sex hormones play a role in the variable regulation of FMO3. Induced FMO3 activity during pregnancy [8has been reported."

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